AGROTECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION OF TOMATOES.
The sowing time of seeds of a tomato is defined on seedling by the planned dates of receipt of finished goods, climatic factors and weather conditions. The age of seedling ready to disembarkation makes 45-55 days, still it is necessary to add 5-7 days on receiving shoots and 4-5 days on sewing if the seedling is grown up with sword-play. Of estimated date of landing you count this number of days back and you receive date of crops. For receiving good shoots it is necessary to prepare soil mix: the cespitose earth – 60%, humus of 30%, sand of 10%. On a bucket of soil mix add mineral fertilizers: 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate or karbonit, 50-60 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of sulfate of potassium. The norm of seeding of seeds on seedling is established depending on a way выращивания:С by sword-play - 4-5 g/m2 and on two seeds in a cell if seedlings are grown up in cartridges. Without sword-play - 1-1,5 g/m2 and on one seed if the seedling is grown up in cartridges. For prevention of viral diseases we presoak seeds in 1% potassium permanganate solution for 10 hours at a temperature of 25-30 Pages. To protection of seedling from root and stem the gnily applies 0,15% Previkur's solution (15 ml. a preparation dissolve in 10 l. waters) with which water the soil during crops or at emergence of shoots at a consumption of working solution of 2-4 l/sq.m, the following processing in 4-6 weeks. For receiving amicable shoots crops need to be mulched the used polyethylene film. Under a film the soil blanket always remains humidified, besides, temperature it some degrees higher, than on an open surface. However the priispolzovaniya of a film mulch need to remember that in bright sunny days temperature of a surface of the soil can sharply increase and there will be a steaming of a seed. In case of its increase to 30-37 ° C it is removed, at decrease in temperature again covered. At emergence of the first shoots the film is removed, otherwise seedlings are extended and polegat.
After seeding temperature of soil has to be not less than 15 ° C and not higher than 25 ° C. During the first five days after seeding optimum temperature is 23-25 ° C. After emergence of shoots it is extremely important to lower temperature to 16 ° C in the afternoon and 14 ° C at night that promotes the best transition of plants from food at the expense of seed stocks to food due to assimilation of mineral substances from the soil. In this case the root system strenuously grows, shoots turn out strong with the truncated subcotyledonous knee. More high temperature can cause an excessive pulling of a stalk. Height of an arrangement of the first and second brushes, and also quantity of flowers in inflorescences of the first brushes depends on air temperature after emergence of entrances and formation of leaves. At insufficient illumination and maintenance of high temperature of an inflorescence turn out small, highly located with small quantity of badly created flowers. At cultivation of seedling in earlier terms (January, February) the artificial dosvechivaniye (12-16 hours) is necessary, and at crops in March and later, production of seedling without dosvechivaniye is possible. If the seedling is grown up with sword-play, it is better to use seedlings in a phase of one-two real leaves. Readiness of seedlings for sword-play depends on conditions of their cultivation and the forthcoming place of sword-play. Than the kultivatsionny construction in which it is necessary to dive seedlings, especially adults is colder they have to be. Water seedling in the mornings, it is moderated. The first top dressing needs to be carried out in 1-2 weeks after sword-play and if the seedling is grown up without sword-play, in a phase of 2 real leaves by solution of fertilizers at the rate on 10l. waters: 10-20 g of ammonium nitrate, + 30-40g. superphosphate, +20-25g. sulfate potassium or 25-30 g of a nitroammofoska. A solution consumption - 10 l. on 22,5 sq.m. After top dressing for removal of the remains of fertilizers the seedling is watered with clear water. The second top dressing needs to be carried out in 7-10 days prior to landing.
For increase of resistance of seedling to a fitoftoroz, an alternarioz, bacterial spottiness in 5-6 days prior to selection it is sprayed by 0,5% solution of bordeaux liquid or its substitute .3a 12-15 days before disembarkation of seedling it is necessary to begin carrying out training of plants, especially if planting of plants is carried out to an open ground. For this purpose kultivatsionny constructions strenuously ventilate. The ready seedling is landed to the friable way paved since fall with introduction of P and K in number of 60% and remained in top dressing in the spring. The first when landing in furrows - phosphorus-nitrogen, following nitric fertilizers in 1-2 weeks after disembarkation during formation and blossoming of the first brush. A third during blossoming, setting and filling fruits carry out nitrogen-potassium water-soluble fertilizers. In a phase of dairy-brown fruits carry out 2-3 extra root top dressing. Extra root top dressing accelerate maturing of fruits, promote accumulation of sugars, increase transportability. For more convenient care of plants the seedling at a drop irrigation is landed according to the scheme 40-80+90, at overhead irrigation 50+90 with distance among 25-30 cm. For receiving an early crop it is necessary to form plants in one stalk, when forming in two stalks the period of maturing is extended. 3agushchennaya landing also extends the maturing period. The illumination of plants is less, the maturing period is longer. In process of aging of the lower leaves they need to be deleted, this reception allows:
first to accelerate maturing due to the best access of light to fruits;
secondly to stop outflow of plastic substances in them from a plant, thereby having increased amount of nutrients necessary for formation of a new crop;
in the third to prevent spread of mushroom diseases due to the best airing of plants and reduction of number of Rossa on leaves.
During the vegetative period maintain humidity of the soil at the level of 70-80% of NV that the korneobitayemy layer was in a condition of uniform moistening. Having watered with overhead irrigation it is necessary to carry out in the morning, in order to avoid stresses and burns to hot time of day or spread of mushroom diseases in the evening (plentiful Rossa and the increased temperature favorable conditions for development of diseases). At a drop irrigation watering is made at any time. For more economical use of water the working zone is mulched straw, sawdust or a dark polyethylene film. Throughout all vegetative period it is necessary to carry out loosening of the soil and to contain a site pure from weeds. At emergence of the first signs of damage of plants by wreckers it is necessary to carry out processing by mixes the fosfororganicheskikh and the piretroidnykh of preparations. Depending on number of wreckers during the season carry out 2-3 processings surely alternating insecticidal preparations. The preparations offered by firms are applied to protection of tomatoes against diseases. Preventive processings are carried out time in 12-15 days, at emergence of an illness of times in 7-8 days.