AGROTECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION OF PEPPER SWEET
Pepper one of the most ancient vegetable cultures which is widely cultivated worldwide. The special value of pepper is caused by the high contents in its fruits of many organic acids, nitrogenous substances, sugars and vitamins, necessary for a human body. Vitamin C in pepper contains more, than in a tomato, a lemon, spinach. The homeland of the grades of sweet pepper extended today in Europe - Mexico and Guatemala, from here his such insistence to heat. Optimum temperature for growth and development of plants of 20-30 °C. At a temperature of 13 °C growth of plants stops, and at minus 0,3-0,5 °C they perish. At low (10-13 °C) and high (30-35 °C) temperature buds, flowers and zavyaz fall down. Plants of pepper are very photophilous. On the shaded sites grow badly, turn yellow, don't blossom, and, therefore, don't fructify. Pepper is exacting to humidity of the soil and air. When drying the soil of a plant suffer from the increased concentration in it of salts, when remoistening - because of a lack of oxygen of the soil. In both cases activity of growth processes decreases. Pepper is very exacting and to fertility of the soil. Well grows on the ostrukturennykh vlago-both air-permeable sandy soils and sandy loam chernozems, doesn't transfer the sour heavy and rehumidified soils. I am sympathetic on organic and mineral fertilizers. Prior to the beginning of a phase of a plodoobrazovaniye needs the raised doses of phosphoric fertilizers, since a phase of formation of fruits and until the end of vegetation - potash fertilizers. The pepper crop to a great extent depends on preparation of seeds. For prevention of viral diseases we presoak seeds for 20 min. in 1% manganese solution, then for 24 hours in solution of microcells (at the rate on 1 liter of water): boric acid - 0,1g, manganese sulfate - 0,1g, zinc sulfate - 0,1g, molibdenokisly ammonium - 0,002g. Solution temperature - 22-24 °C. Ratio of dry mass of seeds and solution 1:4. The seeds dried to flowability are ready to crops.
The seedling can be grown up in room conditions, hotbeds, greenhouses, using for this purpose torfoperegnoyny pots, glasses from a polyethylene film, glasses from foodstuff, packages from under milk, boxes. For filling of capacities prepare soil mix. It has to be neutral or subacidic (рН-5,5), well permeable for water and air, friable, moisture capacious, with necessary quantity nutritious elementov:mozhno to recommend such soil mixes: cespitose earth of 50-70%, humus of 30-50%; the cespitose earth – 35%, peat – 35%, peat – 35%, humus – 30%; the cespitose earth – 60%, humus – 30%, sand – 10%. It is possible to add to mix to 30% of sawdust. On a bucket of soil mix add mineral fertilizers: 15-20g ammonium nitrate, 50-60g superphosphate, 15-20g potassium sulfate. At crops of seeds in hotbeds or film constructions, they need to be covered in 7-10 days prior to crops that the soil got warm. The soil is prepared in advance, having added on 1m2 10kg humus, 15-20g ammonium nitrate, 80-110g superphosphate, 30-35g sulfate potassium. Crops is carried out in 55-65 days prior to disembarkation of seedling to an open ground. In pots glasses sow 1-2 seeds; hotbeds and greenhouses - 10-15g. on 1m2. After shoots the quantity of plants on 1m2 has to make 450-500 pieces. At a temperature of 26-28 °C shoots appear for 10-12 day. If temperature is lower, in 20-22 days. Before emergence of shoots temperature is maintained at the level of 25-30 °C, at optimum humidity of the soil. After emergence of shoots temperature is lowered to 14-17 °C for 5-7 days, this reception is necessary for prevention of a pulling of seedling. Optimum temperature condition for seedling, depending on lighting: in the afternoon, in cloudy weather - 18-20 °C, in solar-25-27 °C, at night 12-15 °С.Нельзя to allow strong moistening, especially at the lowered temperatures - the black leg develops. To the first present sheet water 2-3 times on 7l/sq.m, in the subsequent - on 14-15½/sq.m. If the seedling is grown up with sword-play, it needs to be made for 12-15 day after emergence of shoots when seedlings have the first present sheet. Raspikirovanny seedlings pritenyat the first 2-3 days from a bright sun.
Seedling feed up twice. The first time in a phase of 2-3 real leaves, using 20g ammonium nitrate, 40g superphosphate and 15g sulfate potassium on 10l waters. The second time - in 12-15 days, increasing a dose of fertilizers by 1,5-2 times. After each top dressing of a plant wash with water. Soil is supported in optimum humidified state. Water temperature for watering - 20-25 °С.К to the disembarkation moment 55-60-day seedling has to be height the 20-25th., to have 8-10 sheets, diameter the 4-5th. Before disembarkation the seedling needs to be tempered. The optimum term of a hardening of seedling - 10 days before landing. The increase in this term till 15-17 days slows down growth, development of plants during the entire period of vegetation and leads to decrease in an early crop by 20-30%. Begin training with gradual increase in airing of constructions, bringing the area of open openings to 50% of a full covering. Gradually reduce number of waterings before their complete cessation. A day before disembarkation the seedling is watered plentifully. To increase resistance to the adverse environment, the last watering is combined with the top dressing containing the raised doses of potash fertilizers. For this purpose in 10l waters dissolve 10g ammonium nitrate, 40g the superphosphate (which is previously killed in hot water) and 60-70g potash fertilizers. Land seedling on the site which is well warmed up, lit and protected from a wind. The field under pepper is prepared in the fall. Under deep zyablevy plowing 25-40 t/hectare of the semi-rotting manure and a half of annual norm of superphosphate and potash salt, and in the spring under cultivation a half of annual norm of sulfate ammonium are brought. The second part of annual norm is brought in the form of 2-3 подкормок. The first is brought in 8-12 days after disembarkation, the second during formation of fruits, a third during mass fructification. On a personal plot it is possible to carry out top dressing solution of dung water (1:5), or a bird's dung (1:15), adding phosphorus-potassium fertilizers or ashes. Spend 0,5 - 1l. solution on each plant, then water with clear water. 3a the period of vegetation of a plant 3-4 times feed up. Land pepper in the ordinary and tape way. The scheme of landing at an ordinary way 70х18-20 on one plant and 70х35-40 on 2 plants, at tape (90+50) h18-20 on one plant and (90+50) h35-40 on 2 plants in a nest. The seedling of pepper is buried to the soil when landing on cotyledonous leaflets. Optimum conditions for growth and formation of a crop of pepper sweet develop at humidity of the soil not lower than 90% of NV during the period from disembarkation prior to fructification and 80% of NV during fructification. At the beginning of the vegetation period for maintenance of necessary humidity pepper is watered often, small irrigation norms. Since the beginning of fructification the size of irrigation norm increases, and waterings carry out less often. In the absence of rainfall water pepper each 7-9 days.
Pepper is sensitive to the air mode therefore the soil has to be in a friable state. Row-spacings regularly loosen in 2-3 days after each watering or a rain. Depth of the first processing 8-10, the subsequent the 10-12th. To a phase of mass fructification depth of loosening is reduced to the 6-8th. For fight against diseases (макроспориоз, a bacteriosis) during vegetation cupriferous preparations use. At a lack of calcium and magnesium fruits are surprised topmost decay. On such sites it is necessary to introduce the fertilizers containing calcium and magnesium from calculation on 40-50kg ñ.ó./hectare. Harvesting of pepper is begun in 20-45 days after blossoming (depending on a grade and conditions of cultivation). Gather pepper regularly, every 5-6 days. Timely cleaning of fruits extends the period of fructification and promotes productivity increase. Selection of grades is of great importance for receiving qualitative products. We give the description of the grades of sweet pepper, most widespread in our region, on which in our center primary seed farming for production of qualitative seeds is conducted below: Gift of Moldova, Swallow, Belezerka (Lumina), Winnie-the-Pooh, Eaglet, Polet, Victoria, Athlete, Sun, Kolobok, Ruby, Gold anniversary.