AGROTECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION OF CUCUMBERS
Cucumber – culture thermophilic, photophilous and hygrophilous. These features need to be considered when determining a place and agrotechnology of its cultivation. Temperature 24-28 0C is necessary for the normal growth of a cucumber. At a temperature below 15 of 0C development of plants is late. Long influence of temperature 8-10 0C stops their growth, and at a temperature of 3-4 of 0C within 3-4 days it perishes. The root system at it is more sensitive to a cold snap, than elevated part therefore it isn't necessary to sow a cucumber to the cold earth since seeds won't sprout and will decay, and at the landed seedling will start dying off roots. The cucumber starts blossoming on when air gets warm up to the temperature not below 14-16 of 0C. The cucumber well grows and fructifies only when receives all necessary batteries: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and microcells. The plant receives them at complex use of organic and mineral fertilizers. The cucumber is exacting to soils, high-fertile, friable, well permeable for air, water and heat. The best soils — loamy, with the high content of manure or vegetable humus, and also peat. Or the decayed low-lying peat mixed with sawdust or with small cut straw. Preparation of the soil is begun in the fall, clear a site dig over, without overturning layer, without breaking earth lumps because moisture from precipitations and snow keeps so best of all, and the frost exposes to frost the soil better, destroying wreckers and causative agents of diseases. Under autumn redigging bring 10-12 kg of the rerotting manure, 20-25 g of superphosphate and 18-20g potash salt on 1 sq.m. In the spring the soil and foundation of the greenhouse need to be disinfected – on a bucket of hot water to add 3 g of manganese or on 10 l of water take 2 tablets "Sparks" and 2 Oksikhoma or Homa packages, spending 1 l on 10m. Or on 10 l of water add 2 St. spoons of a copper vitriol and 100 g of tar soap (it from diseases), and from wreckers — 50 g of "Karbofos" too on 10 l of water and to process solution of infused chloric lime in the fall. Will be 40 g to dissolve in several pure liters enough further to avoid possible infections and diseases. To carry out prevention of the soil and plants it is necessary always – and before disembarkation in soil, and in the course of growth, and the more so after harvesting.
In the spring as soon as clears up, the greenhouse should be covered with a film and to allow soil "to ripen" inside. When the soil got warm already enough, it is necessary to make ridges, about 20 cm high, longitudinal or cross – everything depends on the size of each concrete greenhouse. In the standard greenhouse usually 2 ridges, 4 rows of landing and a path. In each landing row land seedling stalks through 30 cm from each other. At more dense landing plants won't have enough food and lighting therefore they will grow the weak. At the height of 2 m over ranks it is necessary to establish vertical lanes, to them further by means of a twine plants will tie. When the plant reaches the top point of a lane, do a nipping on the main escape at the level of the second or third leaf of a stalk. In the future to accelerate fructification of cucumbers, the nipping should be done at the level of 4-5 sheet. At cultivation of cucumbers it is recommended to use the mulching film. Use of the mulching film increases a crop by 20-30%, and also accelerates maturing of fruits. Mulchirovaniye a film influences also morphology of plants and an anatomic structure of leaves: the main escapes become longer and have the big assimilating surface. For a mulchirovaniye use a black film 0,03-0,06 mm thick or a film with high reflective properties (duplicated by aluminum foil polyethylene transparent). The film 1 m wide is most convenient. The film is displayed some days before the planned crops or landing to well moistened soil. For this purpose from two parties of ridges cut cracks of 10-15 cm in depth, display a film on ridges, filling it from both parties in a crack and powder with soil so that the film well stretched. For crops of a cucumber in an open ground two spring terms (at the end of April and the first half of May) and summer (last decade of June). It is better to carry out early crops dry seeds as the wetted seeds in the cool soil rot and don't give amicable shoots at late crops it is possible to use the sprouted seeds. For film greenhouses the seedling can be grown up in pots on a window sill from April 2 — 5 to April 25 — 30 to land it to the greenhouse on May 1 — 20. If the greenhouse is fitted by two layers of a film and there is an additional heating, there is no need to grow up seedling in house conditions. The seedling is grown up at once in the greenhouse on a small bed. Sow seeds on April 15, and then in 20 — 25 days (approximately on May 1 — 15) transplant seedling on all square of the greenhouse, i.e. on a constant place. In case of fall of temperature of air during growth of seedling it is necessary to close - it in the greenhouse an easy thin film or special nonwoven fabric (I lutrasit, I agrit, etc.).
Seeds on seedling vyseivat in pots, glasses or bags of 8x8 or 10x10 cm in size. In pots fill one of nutritious soil mixes: on 2 parts of peat and humus and 1 part of small old wood sawdust, on a bucket of this mix add 1 tablespoon of a nitrofoska and 2 tablespoons of wood ashes.
Or other mix: by one part of the cespitose earth, peat, humus, sawdust or by one part of peat and humus, on a bucket of these mixes add one tablespoon of the organic Barrier fertilizer and ashes. Any soil mix can be replaced with ready soil "Live Earth No. 2" or "Live Earth" (universal) without addition of other fertilizers. Soil mix is mixed well and up to the top filled in pots. Then water warm (50 °C) with solution (in 10 l of water to dissolve 1 tablespoon of liquid "Ideal"). If soil mix was condensed, it is necessary to pour soils that the pot was full. Then to put ready pots on a bed.
Pots place one to one bridge way, i.e. without distances between them. After that beds together with pots before crops of seeds spray solution: on 10 l of water add 10 g of the preparation "Whom" or "Oksikh", spending 1 l of solution for 5 m.
At cultivation of seedling it is necessary to maintain temperature at night not below 12 — 15 °C. For the night it is necessary to cover seedling more warmly, and in the afternoon additional ukryvny to remove material. If in the afternoon air temperature reaches 20 °C and above and there is no wind, it is possible to slightly open a window leaf on the one hand of the greenhouse.
Temperature has to be maintained in the greenhouse at the constant level (a difference between day and night no more than 4 — 6 °C).
Too high temperature causes a pulling and weakening of plants while temperature is lower optimum a little slows down growth, without influencing, however, normal development of plants.
Temperature in the greenhouse is regulated by means of airing which can be strengthened and made more long in process of increase of external temperature up to opening of a door for all day, and further and for the night.
The sowed seeds, and also the appeared seedlings should be watered with a small leechka with very small openings. The norm of watering depends on a growth phase and temperature of air. For good supply of plants with water it is necessary to carry out watering so that water reached depth of an arrangement of roots.
If depth of backs, for example, at seedling of a cucumber of 3 cm, water 3 l of water on 1 m. During fructification roots get into depth of 15 — 18 cm, naturally, water from 15 to 18 l of water on 1 m.
Humidity of air is maintained by 70 — 85%. The corresponding humidity in warm days is maintained by spraying in the greenhouse. Humidity of air higher than 85% promotes emergence of drop and liquid moisture on plants that is favorable for development of mushroom diseases. Top dressing of seedling. Slaborastushchy seedling of a cucumber in greenhouses each 8 — 10 days feed up. For this purpose apply the following solutions:
1) on 10 l of water add one tablespoon from the organic Fertility fertilizers, either "Supporter", or liquid "Ideal", or a humate of sodium or potassium, or "Agricola forward", spending from 2 to 3 l for 1 m, or on 0,5 glasses on one pot;
2) the second top dressing can be prepared from mineral fertilizers: on 10 l of water — 1 teaspoon of a nitrofoska, 1 Kemira-Lyuks or Agricola-vegueta teaspoon. Or on 10 l of water add on 1 teaspoon of urea, sulfate of potassium, superphosphate. An expense from 2 to 3 l on 1 m.
The first top dressing is done in a phase 1 — 2 constant leaflets.
The second — in a phase 3 — 4.
At disembarkation of seedling to a constant place of a plant have to have 5 — 6 constant leaves, 1 — 2 short mustache, a thick stalk and well developed root system.
Before disembarkation of seedling do moistening watering, do holes by depth corresponding to the pot size and water them with solution of the organic Barrier fertilizer of E tablespoons on 10 l warm (30 °C) waters), spending on 0,5 l for a hole. The seedling is put vertically, filling up only a soil pot.
If the seedling was a little extended, the small stalk to cotyledonous leaflets can be filled up with mix from peat and sawdust 1:1, either pure peat, or vermicompost soil mixture.
Seedling land at distance 50 — 60 cm from each other. For the best lighting it is landed in chessboard order. The seedling is put vertically, fill up only a pot.
Care of plants in the protected soil has the features, generally it is connected with regulation of a microclimate, airing, watering, top dressing, processing, formation and harvesting.
When plants have 8 — 9 constant leaves, them tie a polyethylene twine to a wire. Form a plant in one stalk which as it is told above, reaches length from 1,5 to 2 m, thus side escapes in the lower 3 — 4 knots (in a bosom of the first lower leaves) completely pull out (blind) at the very beginning of their education. Other side escapes going from bosoms of leaves (for gardeners), leave from 20 to 50 cm long and tops prishchipyvat. The main stalk reaches a wire, and in process of growth it throw through both rows of a wire and prishchipyvat. Humidity of air during vegetation during the summer period is maintained to 90 — 95% (especially in hot days), she is supported by spraying. Watering is carried out in the greenhouse since morning. In cloudy days water less often, 1 — 2 time a week, in sunny days water from 2 to 3 times.
The amount of water is spent depending on a phase of a plant and depending on weather. Before blossoming water 5 — 6 l, during blossoming of 8 — 10 l, during fructification — 12 — 18l on 1m. Temperature in the greenhouse has to be day of 21 — 25 °C, at night — 17 — 19 °C (the difference between day and night temperatures has to be no more than 4 — 6 °C). Too high temperature (above 30 °C) causes a pulling and weakening of plants. Therefore the cucumbers which are grown up in greenhouses at high temperature demand intensive airing, it is enough to open window leaves, doors or if greenhouse film, to lift a film along one of the longitudinal parties.
Shading — this operation is recommended, and sometimes and is simply necessary when illumination too big and temperature in the greenhouse, despite airing, increases right after landing or care of plants. For this purpose the diffused light is required. In this case apply spraying by weak water solution of chalk from outer side of the greenhouse.
Soil temperature at development of plants has to be 20 — 22 °C.
Beds always contain pure from weeds. In the first 2 — 3 weeks when plants still small, carry very carefully out loosening on depth of 2 — 3 cm so that not to damage backs. Further loosening is carried out how there will pass to the soil watering water. If when watering water badly passes, it means that the soil was stamped. Then by a pitchfork do punctures between ranks of plants on depth of horns, 4 — 5 punctures on 1 m. At such loosening the root system isn't broken.
Researches showed that plants develop more intensively and the crop raises at increase of the content of carbon dioxide in air. The contents can be raised it, displaying pieces of an artificial ice in the greenhouse or having delivered to a flank with the manure talker. Manure, decaying, emits carbon dioxide directly in air. The talker it is necessary to mix regularly, accelerating fermentation process.
Normal growth and development of plants of a cucumber is provided at a ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 160:200:400 mg on 1 kg of dry soil, that is when on one part of mobile nitrogen in soil there are 1,5-2 parts of potassium, 0,8-1 part of mobile phosphorus, 1 part of calcium and 0,2-0,3 parts of magnesium. In the course of decomposition of organic substance absorbing ability of soil decreases and the contents in it mobile forms of fertilizers from what concentration of soil solution increases increases. It is also necessary to consider increase of concentration of salts in soil due to introduction with irrigation water. Therefore it is necessary to carry out monthly reduced agrochemical analyses and according to their results to correct the content in soil of elements of mineral food and рН. It is best of all to introduce fertilizers through system of a drop irrigation (fertigation).
Peronosporoz. It is most strongly shown in damp weather. The struck plants lag behind in growth, on leaves yellowish spots which korichnevet over time are formed. On the lower party of a leaf there is a sporonosheniye of brownish-gray color. At emergence of the first symptoms of an illness it is necessary to carry out processing by system fungicides, such as the Acrobat of MTs of 69% of page of the item, Alyett of 80% of page of the item, Ridomil of MTs of 72% of page of the item, Kurzat of P pages of the item, Previkur 607 SL century of river. Further contact and system fungicides need to be alternated, and also to alternate preparations to different active ingredient for prevention of resistance.
Mealy dew. The outbreaks of an illness are observed with approach of steady hot weather. Mealy dew strikes leaves, forming on them whitish spots which in process of increase become covered by a mealy sporonosheniye. For processing use preparations Bayleton of 25% of this year, Impakt of 25% к.э., Topsin of M of page of the item, Kvadris 250 SC.
Detsis-duplet, Konfidor, Bazudin apply 60% of century to fight against provolochnik, ants, larvae of a rostkovy fly э., Fury 10%v.e.
Tripsa. In the southern areas appear in May. Harm throughout all vegetation. On leaves there are white spots which at strong damage merge owing to what leaves dry out.
Fight measures: Zolon of 35% , Bazudin of 60% of century, Konfidor of 20% , Fury of 10% of century , Sherpa of 25%, Nurel of D 55%
Tick. Insect of an oval form, glaucous or orange-red color. Ticks from the lower party of a leaf settle and exhaust juice. During the vegetative period the web tick in the conditions of Ukraine gives to 12 generation. In droughty summer of a plant, strongly damaged by pincers, perish. The damaged leaves gradually buret and dry out.
Fight measures: Mitak of 20%, Aktellik of 50%, Talstar of 10%.
Plant louse. Insect 2-3 mm long. Accumulates groups from the lower party of a leaf or on green escapes. Exhausts juice from plants, often strongly deforming leaves, escapes and fruits.
Fight measures: BI-58 (new) 40% , Zolon of 35% , Konfidor of 20% , Nurel of D 55%