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Agrotechnics growing eggplant

1. Cultivation of an eggplant in an open ground Cultivation of seedling of an eggplant Terms of jumping of seeds of an eggplant on seedling: in the middle of March. Dosvechivaniye: it is recommended, especially in the first month, differently the seedling of an eggplant badly grows and it late puts flower buds. The recommended temperature: optimum temperature of germination 20 — 25*C at which seeds of an eggplant give shoots on 8 — the 10th day (minimum 13*C). After emergence of shoots within 3-5 days it is recommended to lower temperature to 17-20*C day and 10-12*C night that will promote the best growth of backs at seedling of an eggplant. Further, temperature again increases to 25-27*C day and 15-18*C night. Sword-play of seeds of an eggplant: it isn't required. It is important. Since the seedling of an eggplant badly transfers change, it is recommended to grow up at once seeds of eggplants in separate pots, it is better peat (the recommended diameter – 8-10 cm). In one pot lands at once on three sunflower seeds of an eggplant on depth of 1,5-2 cm. After shoots leave only the strongest plant, the others pull out. Right after shoots the seedling of an eggplant isn't watered at all and if the earth dry, humidify it with spraying. The first watering is carried out only in 2 — 3 days, and then it is regular (each 5 days) without allowing drying of the soil. Also during cultivation seedling of eggplants 2-3 times complex mineral fertilizers feed up: the first time – after emergence of the first couple of real leaves, then in 2 weeks. The seedling of an eggplant, ready to disembarkation, has to have well developed root system and 5 — 7 real leaves.

2. Attention! The seedling of eggplants loves light, dry air and the damp soil and doesn't transfer drafts therefore when carrying out airing of the room it is recommended to clean seedling from a window sill. Jumping of an eggplant in soil Terms of jumping of seedling of an eggplant in soil: the end of May - the first decade of June when threat of spring frosts passes (use 60-65-day pottery seedling). Scheme of landing: 60 — 65 cm between ranks and 30 — 35 cm among between plants. On 1 sq.m as a rule plant no more than 4 — 6 plants since the zagushchennost of landings conducts to decrease in a crop. The best predecessors: melon, bean and green cultures, and also carrots. Important. In 7-10 days prior to disembarkation the seedling of an eggplant is recommended to be tempered. For this purpose daytime temperature is reduced to 15-17*C, and night – to a 10-14*s.baklazhana are very exacting to the soil and a site therefore the soil has to be as it is possible is more fertile, and location - well warmed up and protected from winds. Perhaps, to land seedling of eggplants in joint landings with tomatoes and pepper. In the spring, to the place of landing of eggplants to the earth introduce mineral fertilizer, at the rate on 1 sq.m: 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of chloride potassium and 40 g of ammonium nitrate. Just before disembarkation of seedling the dug-out holes plentifully water (approximately 2 l / a hole). The seedling of an eggplant is put in the received gruel, filling up from sides with the dry soil that the crust wasn't formed. If the seedling of an eggplant was grown up in a plastic pot – a plant take out accurately, trying not to damage a lump. If in a peat pot - land in a hole together with a pot. Attention! When landing the seedling of an eggplant is buried at 1 cm.

3. Cultivation of an eggplant and leaving Watering. The first watering is carried out in 2-3 days after disembarkation of seedling of eggplants. Following (plentiful) in 3-4 days. Further, considering that eggplants don't love the drying-up soils, passages carry out regularly and plentifully. Before blossoming: once a week at the rate of 10-12 l/sq.m, during blossoming and fructification: time in 4-5 days at the rate of 10-12 l/sq.m (or once a week at the rate of 14-16 l/sq.m). Watering is carried out surely warm water, not lower than 20*C (the recommended water temperature 24-25*C). When watering by cold water eggplants slow down growth, and their terms of blossoming of fructification move. Fertilizer and top dressing. During cultivation of eggplants carry out three top dressing: the first - at the beginning of a mass butonization, the second — before mass harvesting, a third - during formation of fruits on side escapes. Feed up water solution, at the rate on 1 sq.m: 4-5 g of ammonium nitrate, 10–20 g of superphosphate, 5–10 g of chloride potassium. Also eggplants are sympathetic and on organic fertilizers (the rerotting manure or humus) at the rate of 2 — 6 kg/sq.m. Formation of a bush. For the purpose of receiving the compact and well developed bush when the plant of an eggplant reaches 25-30 cm, at it delete (prishchipyvat) a top of the main stalk. After emergence of side escapes leave 3-5 strongest, and the others also prishchipyvat. Further delete only not fructifying escapes. For stability the bush is tied up to the support thrust by a row. Important. The eggplant very much loves heat, therefore the best temperature for its growth and development: 20 — 30*C. At a temperature of 15*C growth of a plant of an eggplant stops, and at decrease to 13*C – it starts turning yellow and perishes. The eggplant doesn't transfer frosts in principle therefore if in the fall on plants still remain young fruits, a bush it is possible to dig out, replace 4-6 l in pots and to continue cultivation in the apartment. Care of eggplants is reduced to weeding of weeds and loosening. Thus loosening of the soil has to be not deep since roots at an eggplant are located superficially. Attention! Eggplants are very exacting to humidity of the soil especially during blossoming and a fruit of education therefore watering has to be regular (the rare and very plentiful waterings leading to remoistening of the soil are also harmful).

4. Diseases and wreckers of an eggplant. Fitoftorozfitoftoroz - the most harmful disease of potatoes and a tomato. The first symptoms of an illness appear where moisture, - on the lower leaves at the edges of a plate most long remains. They represent dark-brown spots which quickly increase, becoming almost black. On the lower party of leaves, on border struck and healthy fabrics, there is a white raid well noticeable in the morning when dew still keeps. Further фитофтороз strikes also inflorescences (blackening and drying up of a tsvetonos and chashelistik), and fruits (emergence of the hypodermic, indistinct brownish-brown firm spots increasing in sizes) and tubers (emergence of the lead-colored spots turning into solid brown decay) of plants. Emergence of a fitoftoroz is promoted by sharp fluctuations of temperature, plentiful dew (open ground) and the increased humidity of air (in hotbeds and greenhouses). Gray gnilsery decay - a fungal disease which most often affects the dying-off parts of a plant. A characteristic symptom of an illness is the white, and then ash-gray, fluffy raid on the struck parts of a plant. Late defeat assumes an air of dry decay with concentric spots. Under adverse conditions, especially during the autumn period (sharp fluctuations of temperature and a surplus of moisture) gray decay healthy plants and fruits are surprised. The mosaic of a listyevmozaik of leaves is a viral disease. At the plants struck with a mosaic on leaves light sites along veins and easy rugosity at first are formed. Then round them there is a dark green bordering. The leaf struck with a mosaic becomes covered by puzyrevidny swellings, to get a wrinkled form, is pulled together on veins. The pulp of fruits struck with a mosaic - hardens. The disease is promoted by the lowered air temperature and cloudy weather. The internal necrosis a plodovvnutrenny necrosis of fruits is a viral disease. On the fruits struck with a necrosis the brown died-off sites are formed, why quality of fruits decreases. The disease of a necrosis is promoted by low illumination in combination with the increased humidity of air. From wreckers eggplants most of a podverzheny:tlyatla — little insects, which size doesn't exceed several millimeters. Its colonies settle down on escapes and the lower party of leaves. The plant louse exhausts juice from plants, having punctured a thin skin of a leaf and covers them with the sticky excrements. As a result leaves are twisted, turn yellow and dry up, and stalks fade. At strong defeat of plant louses the plant perishes.

5. From wreckers eggplants most of a podverzheny:tlyatla — little insects, which size doesn't exceed several millimeters. Its colonies settle down on escapes and the lower party of leaves. The plant louse exhausts juice from plants, having punctured a thin skin of a leaf and covers them with the sticky excrements. As a result leaves are twisted, turn yellow and dry up, and stalks fade. At strong defeat of plant louses the plant perishes. The web kleshchpautinny tick damages mainly the plants which are grown up in hotbeds and greenhouses. Braiding the thinnest web a surface of the lower party of a leaf, he punctures its thin skin and exhausts cellular juice. The plants struck with a tick in a month usually perish. Belokrylkavred both adult Whiteflies, and their larvae put. The whitefly keep usually on the lower surface of leaves (preferring leaves of the top circles of plants), from which exhausts all juice. Leaves buret and dry up, fruits fall down. Colorado жукВред both adult Colorado beetles, and its larvae put. The adult Colorado beetle eats around leaves. Larvae of the 1st age gnaw pulp of a leaf from below, since the 2nd — destroy all pulp, leaving only median thick veins. Attention! For fight against all diseases and wreckers of an eggplant it is recommended to use the modern effective preparations allowed for use in personal homestead economy accurately observing the recommended dosage, terms and frequency rate of processings.

6. Receiving products. On average, one plant (an eggplant bush) yields 10 - 20 fruits, with a lump of 2 — 3 kg. Thus, than the quantity of fruits is less – subjects they grow more largely. Eggplants are removed in a phase of a technical maturity when seeds still white, underdeveloped and are easily knifed. A characteristic sign of technical ripeness of an eggplant is strong glossy gloss of fruits. It isn't necessary to delay cleaning since the ripened fruits don't allow to ripen the following. As a rule, harvesting is carried out by each 4-5 days, surely cutting off (without breaking) an eggplant fruit together with a fruit stem. If to try to break a fruit, it is possible to break off all branch (a fruit stem short and very firm). Collected fruits of eggplants don't dozarivatsya (such as tomatoes or pepper) since they very quickly fade and lose the commodity qualities. Therefore they are used at once after cleaning. At the end of a season (after completion of mass harvesting) leave 4-5 small zavyazy, and the others, including also again formed flowers, delete (since the bigger quantity all the same won't manage to ripen before cold weather approach). Attention! At commodity cultivation of eggplants, for the purpose of increase of their productivity, through each 12 — 15 rows arrange kulisny crops from corn, sowing it in a week - one and a half before disembarkation seedlings of eggplants. In a midland of Russia (and to the north) to receive a worthy crop of an eggplant in an open ground it is problematic (since the eggplant surpasses in a teplolyubivost practically all vegetable cultures). Therefore for receiving worthy crops they are recommended to be grown up in greenhouses on solar heating.

7. 2. Cultivation of an eggplant in greenhouses on solar heating Cultivation of seedling of an eggplant Terms of jumping of seeds of an eggplant on seedling: at the end of February — the beginning of March. Dosvechivaniye: it is recommended, especially in the first month, differently the seedling of an eggplant badly grows and it late puts flower buds. The recommended temperature: optimum temperature of germination 20 — 25*C at which seeds of an eggplant give shoots on 8 — the 10th day (minimum 13*C). After emergence of shoots within 3-5 days it is recommended to lower temperature to 17-20*C day and 10-12*C night that will promote the best growth of backs at seedling of an eggplant. Further, temperature again increases to 25-27*C day and 15-18*C night. Sword-play of seeds of an eggplant: it isn't required. It is important. Since the seedling of an eggplant badly transfers change, it is recommended to grow up at once seeds of eggplants in separate pots, it is better peat (the recommended diameter – 8-10 cm). In one pot lands at once on three sunflower seeds of an eggplant on depth of 1,5-2 cm. After shoots leave only the strongest plant, the others pull out. Right after shoots the seedling of an eggplant isn't watered at all and if the earth dry, humidify it with spraying. The first watering is carried out only in 2 — 3 days, and then it is regular (each 5 days) without allowing drying of the soil. Also during cultivation seedling of eggplants 2-3 times complex mineral fertilizers feed up: the first time – after emergence of the first couple of real leaves, then in 2 weeks. The seedling of an eggplant, ready to disembarkation, has to have well developed root system and 5 — 7 real leaves. Attention! The seedling of eggplants loves light, dry air and the damp soil and doesn't transfer drafts therefore when carrying out airing of the room it is recommended to clean seedling from a window sill.

8. Jumping of an eggplant in soil Terms of jumping of seedling of an eggplant in soil: in the middle of May (use 60-65-day pottery seedling). Scheme of landing: 50 — 60 cm between ranks and 40 — 40 cm among between plants. Important. In 7-10 days prior to disembarkation the seedling of an eggplant is recommended to be tempered. For this purpose daytime temperature is reduced to 15-17*C, and night – to a 10-14*s.baklazhana are very exacting to the soil and a site therefore the soil has to be as it is possible is more fertile, and location - well warmed up and protected from winds. It is possible to land seedling of eggplants in joint landings with tomatoes and pepper. In the spring, to the place of landing of eggplants to the earth introduce mineral fertilizer, at the rate on 1 sq.m: 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of chloride potassium and 40 g of ammonium nitrate. Just before disembarkation of seedling the dug-out holes plentifully water (approximately 2 l / a hole). The seedling of an eggplant is put in the received gruel, filling up from sides with the dry soil that the crust wasn't formed. If the seedling of an eggplant was grown up in a plastic pot – a plant take out accurately, trying not to damage a lump. If in a peat pot - land in a hole together with a pot. Attention! When landing the seedling of an eggplant is buried at 1 cm. Cultivation of an eggplant and leaving Watering. The first watering is carried out in 2-3 days after disembarkation of seedling of eggplants. Following (plentiful) in 3-4 days. Further, considering that eggplants don't love the drying-up soils, passages carry out regularly and plentifully. Before blossoming: once a week at the rate of 10-12 l/sq.m, during blossoming and fructification: time in 4-5 days at the rate of 10-12 l/sq.m (or once a week at the rate of 14-16 l/sq.m). Watering is carried out surely warm water, not lower than 20*C (the recommended water temperature 24-25*C). When watering by cold water eggplants slow down growth, and their terms of blossoming of fructification move. Fertilizer and top dressing. During cultivation of eggplants carry out from 3 to 5 подкормок (look on the general condition of landings). The first top dressing is carried out as a rule in 2-3 weeks after disembarkation of seedling of eggplants. Feed up water solution, at the rate on 1 sq.m: 4-5 g of ammonium nitrate, 10–20 g of superphosphate, 5–10 g of chloride potassium. Also eggplants are sympathetic and on organic fertilizers (the rerotting manure or humus) at the rate of 2 — 6 kg/sq.m.

9. Formation of a bush. For the purpose of receiving the compact and well developed bush when the plant of an eggplant reaches 25-30 cm, at it delete (prishchipyvat) a top of the main stalk. After emergence of side escapes leave 3-5 strongest, and the others also prishchipyvat. Further delete only not fructifying escapes. Also, for the best development zavyazy at bushes of eggplants delete the leaves shading flowers. Since in greenhouses of a grade of tomatoes grow above, than in an open ground, them surely tie to a lane or support thrust by a row. Important. The eggplant very much loves heat therefore temperature in the greenhouse is recommended to maintain in the afternoon: 24-28*C (in a sunny weather) and 22-24*C (in cloudy weather); at night: 20 — 22*s.ukhod behind eggplants it is reduced to weeding of weeds and loosening. Thus loosening of the soil has to be not deep since roots at an eggplant are located superficially. Attention! 1. Eggplants are very exacting to humidity of the soil especially during blossoming and a fruit of education therefore watering has to be regular (the rare and very plentiful waterings leading to remoistening of the soil are also harmful).2. Thus humidity of air has to be low (regular airing is necessary) to reduce risk of defeat zavyazy and the plant fungal zabolevaniyami.3. Differences of daytime and night time temperatures in the greenhouse shouldn't go beyond the stipulated framework since it can lead to mass falling off of the zavyazy. Receiving products. On average, one plant (an eggplant bush) yields 10 - 20 fruits, with a lump of 2 — 3 kg. Thus, than the quantity of fruits is less – subjects they grow more largely. Eggplants are removed in a phase of a technical maturity when seeds still white, underdeveloped and are easily knifed. A characteristic sign of technical ripeness of an eggplant is strong glossy gloss of fruits. It isn't necessary to delay cleaning, since. the ripened fruits don't allow to ripen the following. As a rule, harvesting is carried out by each 4-5 days, surely cutting off (without breaking) an eggplant fruit together with a fruit stem. If to try to break a fruit, it is possible to break off all branch (a fruit stem short and very firm). Collected fruits of eggplants don't dozarivatsya (such as tomatoes or pepper) since they very quickly fade and lose the commodity qualities. Therefore they are used at once after cleaning. At the end of a season (after completion of mass harvesting) leave 4-5 small zavyazy, and the others, including also again formed flowers, delete (since the bigger quantity all the same won't manage to ripen before cold weather approach).

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